Doug Hadden’s article focuses on the opportunities and threats for governments in developing countries and emerging economies. Governments in developed countries exhibit a sophisticated policy design, enabling them to better exploit Industry 4.0, while developing countries and emerging economies, which have lower government effectiveness and less-sophisticated manufacturing, face more obstacles to benefit from Industry 4.0. Hadden discusses the government and country context that must be considered when developing policy interventions to optimize the potential of 4IR while mitigating vulnerability. In this context, the author suggests that policymakers use a VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity) analysis to determine potential and vulnerability. He then recommends public policy interventions to maximize potential and reduce vulnerability.
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