For the purpose of this article, we define context awareness as the information necessary and sufficient to perform the intended function of the device effectively and efficiently. Typically, but not always, the context can be ascertained comprehensively by answers to some or all of what we like to call “the four Ws”: where, when, who, and what. A simple IoT device with limited functionality may only need to answer one or two Ws, while a more complex IoT device may need answers to all four, and perhaps even to additional questions such as how, why, which, how much, and so on.
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