Editorial Guidelines

You are here

Cutter Business Technology Journal — Calls for Papers

For nearly 30 years, the monthly Cutter Business Technology Journal has served as a forum for thought leaders in academia and industry to present innovative ideas and solutions to the critical issues facing business-technology professionals. Please consider sharing your insight with us for the following upcoming topics. For questions or to send an article idea for consideration, please contact Christine Generali at cgenerali[at]cutter[dot]com. 

Agile Leadership: The Foundation for Organizational Agility

Guest Editor: Don MacIntyre
Abstract Submission Date: July 26, 2017
Articles Due: August 28, 2017

Insurtech: Revolutionizing the Insurance Industry

Guest Editor: Steve Andriole
Abstract Submission Date: July 31, 2017
Articles Due: August 31, 2017

The Industrial Internet of Things: Driving Digital Transformation

Guest Editors: Charalampos Patrikakis and Jose Barbosa
Abstract Submission Date: Extended to June 23, 2017
Articles Due: July 21, 2017

Leveraging EA in the Face of Digital Disruption

Guest Editor: Roger Evernden
Abstract Submission Date: Accepting abstracts now
Articles Due: TBD

The Innovator’s Imperative

Guest Editor: Steve Andriole
Abstract Submission Date: Accepting abstracts now
Articles Due: TBD


DETAILS: Calls for Papers

CALL FOR PAPERS: Agile Leadership: The Foundation for Organizational Agility

For well over a decade, leaders around the world have been encouraging software teams to embrace Agile development practices. The success of many of these teams has moved some leaders to extend their Agile approach to other parts of their organizations, allowing them to achieve true Organizational Agility. That’s the good news. The bad news is that in numerous industry surveys, issues related to Leadership have been identified as some of the top reasons that many Agile transformations have struggled. In the more successful transformations, Leadership has often been credited for being a major part of the success. So what can be done to help more leaders engage in successful transformations?

Cutter Business Technology Journal Guest Editor Don MacIntyre invites papers that explore Agile Leadership, the effect it can have on Agile transformations, and what Leaders need to do about it. Topics of interest include (but are not limited to):

  • What is Agile Leadership and how does it differ from traditional leadership?
  • What skills and competencies are required of an Agile leader?
  • What are some of the leadership challenges that arise when undergoing an Agile transformation?
  • How can leaders demonstrate support for an Agile transition?
  • How can Agile help leaders with the complexity and uncertainty of work in today’s organizations?
  • How can leaders build trust and collaboration within their organization?
  • How can leaders empower teams to take ownership of their work?
  • What does a leader need to know about common practices such as Lean, Scrum, XP, Kanban, and DevOps?
  • What type of a leadership mind shift must take place within an Agile organization?

Abstract Submissions due July 26, 2017. Please send article ideas to Christine Generali and Don MacIntyre, including an abstract and short article outline showing major discussion points. Accepted articles will be due August 28, 2017. Final article length is typically 2,500-3,500 words plus graphics. More editorial guidelines.


CALL FOR PAPERS: Insurtech: Revolutionizing the Insurance Industry

Similar to Fintech revolutionizing the financial services industry, Insurtech is taking the insurance sector by storm with its innovative and possibly disruptive technology solutions. The benefits to incumbent insurers include better engagement with and reestablishing trust with customers, the ability to innovate quicker with improved products, services and distribution, increased operational efficiency and profits, the ability to generate meaningful risk insight, and the opening of new market opportunities for millennials seeking easier means of purchasing insurance.

However, the transition to an Insurtech business model comes with its challenges as many insurance companies are mired in old legacy systems with high cultural barriers that could serve as roadblocks to adoption. As well, Insurtech startups are replete with their own challenges as they try and break into a highly regulated, long established market with an entrenched customer base.

Cutter Business Technology Journal Guest Editor Steve Andriole invites papers that address how Insurtech is bringing both innovation and disruption to the insurance industry. Discussion points may include the following:

  • How can traditional insurance companies benefit from integrating Insurtech technologies into current business models?
  • What are the challenges of integrating Insurtech innovations?
  • What are some of the emerging Insurtech business models and technologies?
  • What new vendors are entering the Insurtech market?
  • What mutual benefits can be achieved by the collaboration between startups and incumbents?
  • What threats do startups pose to traditional insurance carriers?
  • How can Insurtech improve the customer experience?
  • What is the impact of Insurtech on governance, compliance and risk?
  • How can Insurtech technologies be integrated into an incumbent’s ecosystem?
  • What impact will Insurtech startup companies have in the insurance industry?
  • What advantages do incumbent insurers have over startups and vice versa?
  • What are some of the main challenges faced today by Insurtech startups?
  • How are AI, machine learning and robotics being used to improve decision making and processes?

Abstract Submissions due July 31, 2017. Please send article ideas to Christine Generali and Steve Andriole, including an abstract and short article outline showing major discussion points. Accepted articles will be due August 31, 2017. Final article length is typically 2,500-3,500 words plus graphics. More editorial guidelines.

ARTICLE DEADLINE: AUGUST 31, 2017


CALL FOR PAPERS: The Industrial Internet of Things: Driving Digital Transformation

Cutter Business Technology Journal Guest Editors Patrikakis Charalampos and Jose Barbosa invite papers that explore how global industries are adopting Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) or Industrial Internet solutions and realizing improvements in operational efficiencies, productivity, safety, profitability and ultimately driving digital transformation. Possible discussion points include those stated above and below (but are not limited to):

  • What benefits, new market opportunities and competitive advantages will firms realize when adopting IIoT technologies?
  • What are the biggest challenges for firms implementing IIoT solutions and how can they be addressed?
  • What technologies are being harnessed to gain a competitive edge?
  • What type of organizational culture and skills are necessary to encourage innovation and make a digital industrial transformation successful?
  • What qualities should an industrial leader/executive possess to foster and drive a digital transformation?
  • What are some of the basic fundamental steps an organization should take to start transitioning to a connected facility?
  • What new cybersecurity risks will be introduced with the increase in connected digital systems?
  • How can blockchain technologies counteract these security risks and provide for secure business transactions?
  • What new ways are AI, predictive analytics, machine learning, blockchain, etc. being applied in the industrial sector to achieve competitive advantage?
  • What are some new examples or breaking case studies of firms that have benefited from implementing IIoT solutions?
  • What are the benefits, challenges, experiences of organizations adopting new business models such as Industry 4.0, Smart Factory, etc.?
  • What kinds of challenges and resistance are firms encountering in getting their ecosystem of partners, clients, etc. onboard with the changes a successful IIoT implementation demands, and how are they overcoming these?

Abstract Submissions due June 23, 2017. Please send article ideas to Christine Generali and Patrikakis Charalampos, including an abstract and short article outline showing major discussion points. Accepted articles will be due July 21, 2017. Final article length is typically 2,500-3,500 words plus graphics. More editorial guidelines.


CALL FOR PAPERS: Leveraging EA in the Face of Digital Disruption

For many years, management consultants, business gurus and IT experts have tried to explain the economic and social changes of the information age. Have these explanations been too conservative? Could we be facing more extreme shifts in future business and operating models?

The information age has brought radically new business and operating models – such as those of Amazon, or YouTube, where a significant part of the business model depends on capturing feedback, recommendations, and consumer-generated content. Where organization, information and knowledge make a bigger contribution to productive power and profit than labour or machinery. And where companies like Nike can raise the price of a pair of trainers to $179.99 or more by spending $2.7 billion a year to convince consumers of that value.

Cutter Business Technology Journal Guest Editor Roger Evernden invites papers that examine how EA can be leveraged to address the disruption in business and operating models organizations are facing today. In particular, how should EA respond to extreme shifts in business and operating models? What can EA do to leverage common social knowledge embedded in the internet? What patterns in EA support economic models where many “products” or “services” are available through the internet free of charge, or at a very low price?

What is the correlation between business or operating model and the enterprise architecture? What are the pros and cons of the various enterprise patterns that are a response to these changes? And do we need to consider a radically different approach to EA to accommodate an info-capitalist, cognitive capitalist, or post-capitalist world?

Abstract Submissions being accepted now. Please send article ideas to Christine Generali and Roger Evernden, including an abstract and short article outline showing major discussion points. Accepted articles due TBD. Final article length is typically 2,500-3,500 words plus graphics. More editorial guidelines.


CALL FOR PAPERS: The Innovator's Imperative

Some years ago everyone was intrigued with Clayton Christensen's The Innovator's Dilemma and how "good" companies could lose competitive advantage by failing to adopt emerging or disruptive technologies. The Innovator's Imperative explores the thesis that all companies should adopt emerging and disruptive technologies as quickly as possible. This upcoming issue of the Cutter Business Technology Journal invites papers that address the strengths and weaknesses of immediate technology adoption and how innovation depends on the rapid adoption of emerging and disruptive technology.

Abstract Submissions being accepted now. Please send article ideas to Christine Generali and Steve Andriole, including an abstract and short article outline showing major discussion points. Accepted articles due TBD. Final article length is typically 2,500-3,500 words plus graphics. More editorial guidelines.

FINAL ARTICLE DEADLINE: Deadline extended


Editorial Calendar

Month Topic Guest Editor
October 2017 The Customer Experience  
September 2017 Insurtech: Reinventing the Insurance Industry Steve Andriole
August 2017 Agile Leadership Don McIntyre
July 2017 The Industrial Internet: Driving Digital Transformation C. Patrikakis
June 2017 Leveraging Enterprise Architecture for Digital Disruption Roger Evernden
May 2017 Beyond Fintech: New Frontiers Phil O'Reilly
April 2017 The Frontier of Fintech Innovation Phil O'Reilly
March 2017 Business Opportunities in the New Digital Age San Murugesan
February 2017 Information Superiority and Digital Capital Borys Stokalski and Bogumil Kaminski
January 2017 The 21st Century Technology Leader Paul Clermont
December 2016 Technology Trends, Predictions, and Reflections 2017 Cutter Consortium
November 2016 FinTech and the Digitization of Financial Services Philip O'Reilly
October 2016 Cognitive Computing: Applications, Trends, and Implications Paul Harmon
August/September 2016 Business-Driven Digital Transformation Whynde Kuehn
July 2016 Security in the Internet of Everything Era Patrikakis Charlalampos and George Loukas
June 2016 Cultivating Success in Big Data Analytics Barry Devlin
May 2016 The Role of Ethics in Algorithm Design Robert Charette
April 2016 IoT Data Management and Analytics Bhuvan Unhelkar and San Murugesan
March 2016 Technical Debt: The Continued Burden On Software Innovation Tom Grant
February 2016 Disruption and Emergence: What do they mean for Enterprise Architecture? Roger Evernden
January 2016 Technology Trends and Predictions: 2016 Cutter Consortium

 

Editorial Guidelines

These notes are intended to give authors some guidance and direction for articles submitted to Cutter Business Technology Journal (CBTJ) for publication.

Length: The average article in CBTJ is 2,500-3,500 words, unless otherwise specified by the Group Publisher.

Article Format: Please send your article in word document format for editing purposes. Please do not send it as a PDF.

Audience: Publishing with Cutter affords the opportunity to present your insights and research to a corporate audience that is highly interested in emerging developments. Typical readers of CBTJ range from CIOs, CTOs, business executives and vice presidents to directors, technology managers, project leaders, and very senior technical staff. Most work in fairly large organizations: Fortune 500 organizations, universities, large computer vendors, NGOs/IGOs, and government agencies. 48% of our readership is outside of the US (15% from Canada, 14% Europe, 5% Australia/NZ, 14% elsewhere).

Editorial advice: Introductory-level, tutorial coverage of a topic is not very popular with our readership because they're fairly senior people. Delete the introductory "fluff" and get to the meat of the topic. Assume you're writing for someone who has been in the industry for 10 to 20 years, is very busy, and very impatient. Assume he or she is mentally asking, while reading your article, "What's the point? What do I do with this information?" Apply the "So what?" test to everything you write.

General comments: We enjoy controversy and strong opinion; we like the fact that we can provide an alternative to standard "refereed" journals that sanitize articles. Because we don't carry any advertising, we can publish critical or negative comments about specific vendors or products. However, we obviously don't want to publish anything libelous or slanderous. Conversely, we don't publish self-serving commercial messages praising one's own product or service.

Style, grammar, and mechanics: For advice on good writing style, we recommend Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed., The Chicago Manual of Style, and The Elements of Style (Strunk and White). We are fanatics about the editorial quality of Cutter Business Technology Journal; anything you can do to help us in this regard will be greatly appreciated.

Graphics: If you have created graphics or line drawings, please let us know what format they are in and/or the package you used to create them. We can work with a number of formats, but please check with CBTJ's production editor, Linda Dias (ldias@cutter.com), before sending us numerous graphics files.

Deadlines: The deadline you agree to when you commit to writing an article is a "hard" deadline; if you're going to be late, let us know and we'll negotiate a mutually agreeable delivery date. If the deadline passes without our having heard from you, we will assume that you have vanished and are unable to provide the article.

Editorial process: Once we get your article, we commence two parallel editorial passes: one for content (by the guest editor) and one for substance, grammar, and style (by our managing editor, Karen Pasley). Either or both of these editorial reviews may result in some questions or feedback from us. In any case, we will send you a first draft "page proof" of your article for your review and approval. Articles published in the journal must meet certain criteria relating to audience, technical content, and presentation. In the unlikely occurrence that, upon editorial review, your completed article does not meet with these requirements, Cutter Consortium reserves the right to decline the publishing of your article in the journal.

Biographical sketch: At the end of each CBTJ article, we like to print a brief (200 words or less) biographical sketch of each author. We also like to provide the author's e-mail address so that interested readers can contact you. If you don't have a bio written up and would like to see a sample, please contact Karen.

Copyrights: When you submit an article to us, you warrant that you (or your employer) are the sole owner of the article, that you have full power and authority to copyright it and publish it, and that it has not been previously published elsewhere. You also warrant that it does not infringe on any copyright, violate any property rights, or contain scandalous, libelous, or unlawful matter. If you request, we will grant you, or your designee, copyright of the article providing you extend first-time publishing privileges, in print and electronic formats to Cutter Information LLC; otherwise, the article will be copyrighted by Cutter Information LLC.

Promotion: We will, at your request, provide you with a link to share with your colleagues and contacts where they can register and receive a complimentary PDF download of your complete article. You can post this link on your website, blog, tweet it, promote on social networks, etc. It is only acceptable for your final, Cutter-edited article to be downloaded from the Cutter site, and it may not be posted anywhere else without express permission from Cutter*. You may also excerpt a passage or section from your article with attribution to CBTJ, and link it back to the full article on the Cutter website.

Compensation: We are pleased to offer Journal authors an online, one year complimentary subscription to Cutter Business Technology Journal upon the signing of the license agreement. In addition, we occasionally pull excerpts, along with the author's bio, to include in our weekly Cutter Edge email newsletter, which reaches another 12,000 readers. We'd also be pleased to quote you, or passages from your article, in Cutter press releases. If you plan to be speaking at industry conferences, we can arrange to make copies of the issue in which you're published available for attendees of those speaking engagements -- furthering your own promotional efforts.

Reprints: If you would like an authorized reprint of your article for promotional purposes or to post on your website, contact Customer Service (Tel: +1 781 648 8700; E-mail: service@cutter.com) for more information. We can arrange for a reprint with the CBTJ cover, logo, and other details.

* CBTJ accepts no advertising, has no outside sponsorship, and is completely subscriber-supported. In order for us to continue providing this venue for debate to our authors, and your valuable insights to our subscribers, we thank you in advance for your respect of our copyright.

Endnotes: While CBTJ doesn't aspire to be an academic literature review, we do want to give credit where credit is due. When you draw on the work of other authors and researchers, please cite your sources. These should be noted in the relevant part of the text, listed in sequential order (i.e., in the order of appearance, not alphabetical order) at the end, and use the following citation formats:

Books:
DeMarco, Tom, and Timothy Lister. Waltzing with Bears: Managing Risk on Software Projects. Dorset House, 2003.
Highsmith, Jim. Agile Project Management. Addison-Wesley, 2004.
Articles.
Constantine, Larry. "Peer Reviews for Usability." Cutter IT Journal, Vol. 18, No. 1, January 2005, pp. 5-13.
Lindstrom, Lowell, and Kent Beck. "It Gets Worse Before It Gets Better: Changing to XP." Cutter IT Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2, February 2003, pp. 12-17
Philip O'Reilly
Article

Beyond Fintech: New Frontiers — Opening Statement

by Philip OReilly

This issue focuses on key topics of interest for financial services organizations, namely equity crowdfunding, legacy systems migration, robo-advisors, test outsourcing, and refining the reconciliation process.


Bhardwaj Velamakanni
Advisor

Implementing Design Thinking in Agile

by Bhardwaj Velamakanni

This Advisor presents an overview of improving Agile techniques and practices by using design thinking within the Agile space and describes three techniques from design thinking methodologies that tend to yield benefits to Agile practitioners.


Gustav Toppenberg
Executive Update

Data’s Story: An Enterprise Asset in the Digital Backbone

by Gustav Toppenberg

The existence of a digital backbone in an organization means that anyone aspiring and planning to transform different parts of the enterprise can leverage the digital backbone in a consistent and sustainable way, ensuring that each transformation effort connects and leverages a common platform. Digital transformation leaders are starting to realize that a powerful digital services backbone to facilitate rapid innovation and responsiveness is key to successfully executing on a digital strategy.


Effort score and priority rank for requirements in our sample project.
Executive Summary

Can We Measure Agile Performance with an Evolving Scope? An EVM Framework (Executive Summary)

by Alexandre Rodrigues

Can a method like EVM, developed to control projects with well-defined objectives, be applied to control product development initiatives that evolve continuously toward a “moving target”? In an Agile environment, we are faced with the dynamic evolution of a finite boundary of integrated scope, cost, time, and resources; this finiteness — essential for business management and decisions — is the cradle for project management techniques, tools, methods, and frameworks. The EVM method was first developed to help with managing complex R&D projects mostly characterized by an unstable, volatile, and evolving scope. It is therefore no surprise that EVM applies to Agile projects.


Article

The Frontier of Fintech Innovation — Opening Statement

by Philip OReilly

It’s a pleasure for me to introduce the first of two special issues of Cutter Business Technology Journal (CBTJ) showcasing the thought leadership and cutting-edge research and development (R&D) being done in State Street Corporation’s Advanced Technology Centres in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) and Asia Pacific (APAC), in partnership with University College Cork (UCC) and Zhejiang University (ZJU), respectively. The articles in this issue represent a small sample of the output from the R&D undertaken in these centers, which combine academic excellence with real industry impact.


Executive Update

Business Architecture’s Role in Crisis, Risk, and Compliance Management

by William Ulrich

Every business must deal with crisis, risk, and compliance challenges. Teams chartered with addressing these challenges are often split across business units and regions, which fragments crisis, risk, and compliance management efforts. Business unit silos and related complexities obscure ecosystem transparency, which in turn constrain an organization’s ability to identify risks, assure compliance, and prevent and disarm crises. Business architecture delivers business ecosystem transparency as a basis for improving a business’s ability to collectively address challenges related to crisis, risk, and compliance. 


Curt Hall
Advisor

Building New Business Models with Blockchain

by Curt Hall

Organizations are using blockchain to create new business models — exploiting its capabilities for optimizing contract management, financial transaction management, and identity management.


Nine Policy Recommendations for Managing Technical Debt
Executive Update

Managing Technical Debt: Nine Policy Recommendations

by Rick Brenner

For technology-dependent products, companies, institutions, and even societies, sustainability depends on learning how to manage technical debt. Like most transformations, incorporating new practices into our organizations will likely be an iterative process. We already recognize the problem, and researchers are making progress, albeit mostly on technical issues. This Executive Update proposes a policy-centered approach to the problem. It begins with a principle that can serve as a guide for constructing technical debt management policy, and then shows how to apply that principle to develop nine recommendations that enable organizations to manage technical debt effectively.


Bhardwaj Velamakanni
Advisor

Emerging Agile Anti-Patterns

by Bhardwaj Velamakanni

Agile methodologies, however popular they are, bring their own sets of “smells” and anti-patterns to the table, sometimes causing irreparable damage to the team. While the sources of these smells are many, one of the primary culprits is the mindset that treats Agile as “yet another methodology,” totally ignoring the cultural aspect. This article throws light on some of the prominent smells that are emerging of late in the Agile world.


Jens Coldewey
Advisor

Middle Management in Flux

by Jens Coldewey

If you start changing an organization toward an Agile mindset, there’s no real end. Agile is about creating an organization of continuous learning and the transformation is done when there is nothing new to learn, which will probably be never. This puts an enormous challenge on middle management.


Article

Business Opportunities in the New Digital Age — Opening Statement

by San Murugesan

The articles in this issue present perspectives and ideas on business transformation in the digital age. We hope they will inspire and encourage you to visualize the likely future of business in your domain and to explore the opportunities it presents. Finally, we hope their insights will help you identify suitable transformation strategies and plans and, if needed, choose viable collaboration models for partnering with startups and other firms in your digital business efforts.


Advisor

Unlocking Value from Digital Initiatives

by Joe Peppard, by John Thorp

Beyond buzzwords, what we are seeing is a seismic shift in the role of technology in organizations. Technology is more and more embedded in everything we do as we move into an increasingly hyper-connected digital world, a world in which technology is driving significant social, organizational, and industry change.


Digital Data Steams impact bottom line
Webinar

Improve Customer Experience — Leverage Your Digital Data Streams

by Federico Pigni, by Gabriele Piccoli

In this on-demand webinar, you'll discover the strategic and tactical opportunities made possible by Digital Data Streams and the opportunities for improved customer experience made possible by DDS.


Lou Mazzucchelli
Advisor

Why Are They Twittering? A Modest Proposal

by Lou Mazzucchelli

At the Cutter Digital Transformation & Innovation Bootcamp, Cutter Fellow and Harvard Business School Professor Karim Lakhani talked about digitally-driven disruption of traditional business models for value creation and capture, discussing platform models like Facebook and Twitter. To date, Twitter has clearly done a good job “creating value.” But unlike Facebook, it continues to struggle with the capture part of the equation.


social collaboration
Executive Update

Seven Ways to Gamify Social Collaboration

by Phaedra Boinodiris

Social collaboration is not about technology. It’s about connecting people, and it’s changing the way business is being conducted. Similarly, gamification is not about games. It’s about motivating the per­sonal and professional behaviors that drive business value. Together, social collaboration and gamifi­cation help companies reap great benefits — among them, the ability to deepen customer relationships, drive operational efficiencies, and optimize their workforce. 


Figure 1 — Tracing a roadmap to projects.
Advisor

Using Roadmaps Strategically

by Roger Evernden

Roadmaps have two key functions in strategy planning. The first is to outline planned architectural changes that will deliver the required strategies; the second is to outline alternative ways to achieve the same results.


Article

Technology Trends, Predictions, and Reflections 2017: Opening Statement

by Cutter Team

Just as recent global events have given us reason to pause and reflect, the pace of technology emergence and disruption is proving to be a source of inspiration and uncertainty. Transitioning to a digital world is front-of-mind for many business executives, yet finding the right path is an ongoing challenge. So we asked Cutter’s team of experts for their insights on some of the technologies, trends, and strategies that will be relevant in 2017 and beyond. In typical Cutter Business Technology Journal fashion, our call produced a wide range of opinions and reflections worthy of consideration as you chart your business technology journey for the new year.


Article

AGI: A Threat, an Opportunity, or an Inevitable Unknown for 2017?

by Alexandre Rodrigues

Artificial general intelligence (AGI) is currently emerging as an area where recent developments are likely to have a major impact on the way organizations do business, societies organize themselves, and even on how we address values and ethics.

The fact is that AGI already exists in our daily life. A common example is the GPS systems present in many new cars manufactured today; and let’s not forget the drones being used to deliver pizzas and cars that drive themselves. While automatic pilots have been used in commercial planes for quite some time, what AGI is about to offer to general business and human activity is well beyond what most of us have seen so far.


Article

The Tech-Driven Tech Backlash

by Carl Pritchard

2017 is going to be a year of strange winners, and perhaps the strangest of all will be a giant leap away from technology and back to solutions that don’t rely on 24/7 connectivity. With the onslaught of major hacks and Facebook embarrassment, the antitech crowd may have its best year in decades. 


Article

Rapid Technology Innovation in Blockchain: Should You Be on the Front Lines?

by Nate OFarrell

One of the most prevalent blockchains in the world, Ethereum, is poised to switch from a proof-of-work (POW) algorithm to a proof-of-stake (POS) algorithm, likely in 2017, with the release of the Casper codebase. Why does this matter? Because blockchain technology is becoming increasingly relevant and prevalent in businesses across the globe. It holds great potential to disrupt how businesses perform basic transactions, from payments, to programmable, self-executing contracts, to identity verification.